|Values, philosophy: contrary to the notion of economic value, the philosophical concept of value is concerned with the attribution of properties and the characterization of concrete or idealized situations with regard to whether their realization is to be achieved. This is so, because a value can be identified in connection with these situations. See also norms, principles, ethics, morality, utility._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
|Singer I 86
Values/Utilitarianism/Bentham: Thesis: Benefit, Pleasure, Advantage, Good or Happiness all result in the same thing, if it leads to maximization of pleasure or reduction of discomfort. (J. Bentham, Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation (1789), chap. 1 pars. II, V).
VsBentham/Peter Singer: some authors argue, something can be in my interest...
...whether it causes pleasure or less pain.
BenthamVsVs/P. Singer: to defend Bentham, we would have to accept pleasure and pain as objective values. To do this, however, we would have to determine the nature of these objective values and explain how we can know about them._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation Mineola, NY 2007
Practical Ethics (Third Edition) Cambridge 2011
The Most Good You Can Do: How Effective Altruism is Changing Ideas About Living Ethically. New Haven 2015