Economics Dictionary of Arguments

Home Screenshot Tabelle Begriffe

Minorities: Minorities refer to groups within a society that hold a smaller portion of power, privilege, or representation compared to the dominant or majority population. This distinction can be based on factors such as race, ethnicity, religion, gender, sexual orientation, or socio-economic status. See also Majority, Society, Politics, Community, Democracy, Power.
Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Concept Summary/Quotes Sources

Policy of the United States on Minorities - Dictionary of Arguments

Levitsky I 72
Minorities/Policy of the United States/Political Elections/Levitsky/Ziblatt: Electoral fraud is
Levitsky I 73
very rare in the United States(1), and since elections are organized by state and local authorities, nationwide election fraud is virtually impossible. Nevertheless, during the 2016 campaign, Trump continued to claim that millions of illegal immigrants and deceased people on voter rolls would be counted as votes for Hillary Clinton(2).
Levitsky I 213
The reason for enacting a Voter Identification Act was the false assertion that election fraud was widespread in the United States(3). According to all reliable investigations, the extent of election fraud in this country is low(4). Nevertheless, Republicans began to press for measures to address this non-existent problem. The first two states to pass a Voter Identification Act in 2005 were Georgia and Indiana. John Lewis, a member of the House of Representatives from Georgia and a civil rights campaigner, described his state's law as a "modern head tax".(5) An estimated 300,000 voters did not possess any of the proof of identity now required, and African Americans were five times more likely to do so than whites(6). The Voter Identification Act of Indiana, which Judge Terence Evans of the Seventh Circuit Court of Appeals called a "reasonably well-disguised attempt" to "prevent the participation in the election of certain people who are believed to be inclined to be Democratic",(7) was brought before the Supreme Court, which approved it in 2008. After that, such laws were introduced in many places, between 2010 and 2012 in 37 states (8). By 2016, strict laws requiring photo identification had been passed in 15 states, but only ten of them were in effect in time for the election(9).

1 On election fraud in general, see Richard L. Hasen, The Voting Wars. From Florida 2000 to the Next Election Meltdown, New Haven, Connecticut, 2012; Lorraine C. Minnite, The Myth of Voter Fraud, Ithaca, New York, 2010. On the fact that there was no election fraud in 2016, see Jessica Huseman/Scott Klein, »There’s No Evidence Our Election Was Rigged«, in: ProPublica, 28th November 2016.
2. Darren Samuelsohn, »A Guide to Donald Trump’s ›Rigged‹ Election«, in: Politico, 25th Oktober 2016.
3. Justin Levitt, »The Truth About Voter Fraud«, The New York University School of Law Brenner Center for Justice (2007),; siehe auch Minnite, The Myth of Voter Fraud; Hasen, The Voting Wars, pp. 41–73; Sharad Goel/Marc Meredith/Michael Morse/David Rothschild/Houshmand Shirani-Mehr, »One Person, One Vote. Estimating the Prevalence of Double-Voting in U. S. Presidential Elections«, unpublished manuscript, January 2017.
4. See for example: Levitt, »The Truth About Voter Fraud«; Minnite, The Myth of Voter Fraud.
5. Quoted in: Berman, Give Us the Ballot, p. 223.
6. Ibid.
7. Quoted in ibid., p. 254.
8. ibid., p. 260 f.
9. Highton, »Voter Identification Laws and Turnout in the United States«, p. 151–153.

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
Policy of the United States

Send Link

Authors A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   Z  

Concepts A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   Z