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Norms, ethics, philosophy: norms define which actions are permitted, advisable or prohibited when certain circumstances are present. The philosophical discussion deals mainly with questions of its justification.
Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Concept Summary/Quotes Sources

Policy of the United States on Norms - Dictionary of Arguments

Levitsky I 17
Norms/Policy of the United States/Levitsky/Ziblatt: The American separation of powers is supported by two basic norms that we take for granted: mutual respect, or in other words, agreement that competing parties regard each other as legitimate rivals, and restraint, that is, politicians should exercise their institutional prerogatives carefully and with tact.
Levitsky I 18
The erosion of our democratic norms began in the 1980s and 1990s and accelerated in the 2000s. When Barack Obama became president, many Republicans in particular questioned the legitimacy of their Democratic Party rivals, and they had abandoned restraint in favor of a strategy of winning at all costs.
Levitsky I 118
Constitution/USA/Levitsky/Ziblatt: If it was (...) not the constitution drafted in Philadelphia in 1787 that protected American democracy for so long, what was it?
Levitsky I 119
In our view, the development of strong democratic norms is an essential part of this. All successful democracies are based on informal rules that are not laid down in the constitution, but are widely known and respected. In the case of American democracy, this is a decisive factor.
Levitsky I 120
There are unwritten rules everywhere in American politics, from the functioning of the Senate and the College of Elected Representatives to the format of presidential press conferences (2). But two norms are particularly important for the functioning of a democracy: mutual respect and institutional restraint.
Levitsky I 124
Institutional restraint: [The] norm decisive for the existence of democracies is what we call institutional restraint (3).
Levitsky I 125
Where the norm of restraint is strong, politicians, even if they are legally allowed to do so, do not make full use of their institutional prerogatives because this would jeopardize the existing system (4).

1. See Gretchen Helmke/Steven Levitsky (Ed.), Informal Institutions and Democracy. Lessons from Latin America, Baltimore 2006.
2. A classic representation of the norms or traditions of the US Senate is: Donald R. Matthews, U. S. Senators and Their World, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, 1960.
3. 33Wir haben diesen Begriff von Alisha Holland übernommen; siehe Alisha Holland, »Forbearance«, in: American Political Science Review 110, Nr. 2 (Mai 2016), S. 232-246; dies., Forbearance as Redistribution. The Politics of Informal Welfare in Latin America, New York 2017; vgl. auch Eric Nelson, »Are We on the Verge of the Death Spiral That Produced the English Revolution of 1642–1649?«, in: History News Network, 14. Dezember 2014, http://
4. Whittington, »The Status of Unwritten Constitutional Conventions in the United States«, S. 106.

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
Policy of the United States

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