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Politics: Politics is the process of making decisions in groups. It is about how people come together to allocate resources, settle disputes, and make choices about how to live together. See also Democracy, Society.
Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Concept Summary/Quotes Sources

Christianity on Politics - Dictionary of Arguments

Höffe I 92
Politics/Christianity/Höffe: While Plato links political thinking with almost all areas of his philosophical thinking, Aristotle and Cicero here limit themselves to the interlocking of politics with ethics and a philosophically demanding rhetoric. In this way, practical philosophy becomes largely autonomous: it has its own object (...).under the influence of Christianity, this autonomy, both thematic and methodological, is lost. Political thinking is permeated by religion in its interior, its essence. Mere politics, at best linked with ethics and rhetoric, has lost its right.
, >Cicero.
Man: The fact that according to Genesis man - to emphasize: every human being - is created in the image of God unfolds its full explosive power only after a long time.
Judaism: First, in Christianity, the ethnic limitation of Judaism
Höffe I 93
is lifted in favor of all people of good will, thus realizing the potential of universalization first suggested by Jewish prophets.
Politics and Religion: In the canon of Christianity, in the New Testament, the sentence "Give to Caesar what is Caesar's and to God what is God's"(1) puts into perspective the combination of politics and religion that was prevalent in the Old Orient and still resonated in Cicero's recourse to Roman sacral law.
>Religion, >State (Polity), >Christian Church.
Slavery: Paul's call to treat the runaway Onesimus "like a brother" seeks for a legal and social offence, slavery, a solution from the core of Christianity, charity. But it displaces the legal and at the same time genuinely political solution, the abolition of the institution of slavery. For the one who is treated as a brother remains a slave.
Höffe I 94
Two-realms doctrine: Although it does not dominate the whole of Christianity, it is dominant in many phases of its history of influence. It is based on the message of Jesus, for example the statement "My kingdom is not of this world" (2) and the mentioned verse of Matthew "Give to Caesar what is Caesar's, and to God what is God's."(1)
Höffe: Both empires are not of equal rank; instead of a secondary order, there is a priority in the sense of a hierarchy in the literal sense of a holy dominion. The divine rule pushes the secular one into the second rank, often into the almost insignificant background.
State of authority/rule: In a text highly significant for the Christian theory of the political, in the Letter to the Romans, the apostle Paul calls upon the Roman community to be subject to its authority.
He justifies this entitlement of an authoritarian state
Höffe I 95
with a theological argument that for centuries has made it almost impossible for Christians to protest, if necessary to resist political violence: "For there is no authority but of God: but where there is authority, it is appointed by God."(3) In this sentence the political claim raised by princes until well into modern times is based on being rulers "by the grace of God".
John Vs authority: But the Christian canon also contains a true counter-text. In the Revelation of John, the Apocalypse also called the "Secret Revelation", the authority appears as a satanic dragon (13) and as the harlot of Babylon (17) in contrast to the New Jerusalem (21).
Apolitical attitude: Elsewhere, especially in the four gospels, apart from the separation of spheres, the genuinely political plays almost no role. In the foreground, particularly clearly in the Sermon on the Mount, the rather apolitical, because above all for free close relations the obligation to love one's neighbour is valid.
In addition, there is the frequently given command to imitate the corresponding behaviour of the master: "Go and do the same"(4).
Life style: It depends (...) on a living together determined by the commandment to love, which essentially takes place in the pre-political, even if social area.
>Community, >Society.

1. Matthew 22:21
2. John 18:36
3. Romans 13,1
4. Luke 10,37

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
Höffe I
Otfried Höffe
Geschichte des politischen Denkens München 2016

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