Economics Dictionary of Arguments

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Estates of the realm: The estates of the realm were a social and political system in medieval Europe that divided society into three groups the clergy (the First Estate), the nobility (the Second Estate), and the commoners (the Third Estate).
Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Concept Summary/Quotes Sources

Plato on Estates of the Realm - Dictionary of Arguments

Höffe I 29
Estates/Plato/Höffe: According to Plato's psychology, man has three driving forces. They correspond ethically to the three virtues ("virtues": arêtai >Virtues
) and socio-theoretically to three hierarchically ordered occupational groups ("estates": genê):
3rd state: The group of craftsmen, farmers and merchants, presumably including those engaged in culture, is assigned to desire (epithymêtikon) and its virtue of prudence. They form the "third state", the later "civil state", which Plato excluded from the status of citizens.
2nd state: The second driving force, the drive (thymoeidês), corresponds to the bravery and, as the "second state", the guards responsible for defence, administration and police duties.
1st state: Finally, reason (logistikon) is associated with wisdom (sophia)
Höffe I 30
as well as the philosopher-kings, even more sharply selected according to disposition and education.
>Philosopher king.
Höffe I 31
Obligations/privileges/rights: Not all citizens, but the leadership group is forbidden private property as well as marriage and family. For this purpose, the first and second estate commit themselves to a community of goods, women and children. In addition, they renounce any "effeminate" and "disinhibiting" music.
>Citizen, >Property.

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

Höffe I
Otfried Höffe
Geschichte des politischen Denkens München 2016

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