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Distributive justice: Distributive justice is the fair distribution of goods, services, and opportunities in a society. Some theories focus on equality, meaning that everyone should receive an equal share of resources. Others focus on need, meaning that resources should be distributed to those who need them most. Still others focus on merit, meaning that resources should be distributed to those who deserve them the most. See also Justice, Community, Society, Equal opportunities, Inequalities.
Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Concept Summary/Quotes Sources

Climate Policy on Distributive Justice - Dictionary of Arguments

Norgaard I 328
Distributive Justice/Emissions/Climate Policy: (…) a number of non‐philosophers made early contributions explicitly analyzing traditional theories of justice such as utilitarianism, Rawlsianism, and Kantianism and their applicability to mitigation policy (Solomon(1) and Ahuja 1991(2); Ghosh 1993(3); Paterson 1996(4)).
, >I. Kant, >J. Rawls, >Utilitarianism.
(…) the idea of equal per capita emissions rights has consistently been a focal point for advocates of just climate policy, who have often argued that it is a necessary response to engender cooperation from developing countries (Meyer 2000(5); Athanasiou and Baer 2002(6)) as well as a fair solution in its own right.
Norgaard I 330
(…) most analysts who have studied the problem from an ethical perspective have concluded that equal per capita is a minimum standard of distributive justice, inasmuch as it ignores disproportionate historical emissions, even if one limits the period of ‘responsibility’ to (say) 1990, by which time knowledge of the risks of GHG emissions were widespread (Jamieson 2001(7); Singer 2002(8)). Yet it is also commonplace to simply state that ‘the financial transfers that would be associated with equal per capita allocations would be unacceptable to the wealthy countries’ (e.g. Ashton and Wang 2003(9); Posner and Sunstein 2008(10)), which is not an argument about justice, but rather about power.
>Power, >Environmental policy.

1. Solomon, B. 1995. Global CO2 emissions trading: Early lessons from the U.S. Acid Rain Program. Climatic Change 30: 75–96.
2. Ahuja, D. R. 1991. International reductions in greenhouse‐gas emissions: An equitable and efficient approach. Global Environmental Change 1: 343–50.
3. Ghosh, P. 1993. Structuring the equity issue in climate change. Pp. 267–74 in A. N. Achanta (ed.), The Climate Change Agenda: An Indian Perspective. Tata Energy Research Institute, New Delhi.
4. Paterson, M. 1996. International justice and global warming. Pp. 181–201 in B. Holden (ed.), The Ethical Dimensions of Global Change. New York: St Martin's Press.
5. Meyer, A. 2000. Contraction and Convergence: The Global Solution to Climate Change. Totnes: Green Books.
6. Athanasiou, T., and Baer, P. 2002. Dead Heat: Global Justice and Global Warming. New York: Seven Stories Press.
7. Jamieson, D. 2001. Climate change and global environmental justice. Pp. 287–308 in C. A. Miller and P. N. Edwards (eds.), Changing the Atmosphere: Expert Knowledge and Environmental Governance. Cambridge,
8. Singer, P. 2002. One World: The Ethics of Globalization. New Haven: Yale University Press.
9. Ashton, J., and Wang, X. 2003. Equity and climate: In principle and practice. Pp. 61–84 in J. E. Aldy, J. Ashton, R. Baron, et al. (eds.), Beyond Kyoto: Advancing the International Effort Against Climate Change. Washington, DC: Pew Center on Global Climate Change.
10. Posner, E. A., and Sunstein, C. R. 2008. Climate change justice. Georgetown Law Journal 96: 1565–612.

Baer, Paul: “International Justice”, In: John S. Dryzek, Richard B. Norgaard, David Schlosberg (eds.) (2011): The Oxford Handbook of Climate Change and Society. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
Climate Policy
Norgaard I
Richard Norgaard
John S. Dryzek
The Oxford Handbook of Climate Change and Society Oxford 2011

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