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Habermas IV 342
Environment/System/Parsons/HabermasVsParsons/Habermas: Problem: Parsons uses the term ambiguously: a) for the status of an environment superior to the action systems and at the same time b) for the action systems internal environment, which is nevertheless deprived of empirical properties of a system environment.
Habermas IV 371
Parsons establishes a hierarchy between behavioral system, personality, social system, and culture in such a way that the lower one corresponds to the respective
Habermas IV 372
higher system in used energy, which is superior to the lower system in terms of information and control performance. This gives the cultural system the position of a sovereign of control.
Habermas: Parsons not only sets the course for a cultural determinism, but differentiates between two categories of environments: a) at the lower pole the natural or empirical environment, b) at the opposite pole an environment of a non-empirical, supernatural nature. (1)



1.T. Parsons, “Social Systems”, in: Parsons, Social Systems, 1977, S. 181.


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Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.
The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

ParCh I
Ch. Parsons
Philosophy of Mathematics in the Twentieth Century: Selected Essays Cambridge 2014

ParTa I
T. Parsons
The Structure of Social Action, Vol. 1 1967

ParTe I
Ter. Parsons
Indeterminate Identity: Metaphysics and Semantics 2000

Ha I
J. Habermas
Der philosophische Diskurs der Moderne Frankfurt 1988

Ha III
Jürgen Habermas
Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns Bd. I Frankfurt/M. 1981

Ha IV
Jürgen Habermas
Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns Bd. II Frankfurt/M. 1981


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