Open Source Software/Shirky: Because open source software is based on peer production, work on it can be much more experimental and cost effective. Companies cannot afford it. Why? Open systems reduce the cost of failure, they do not create tendencies towards predictable but suboptimal solutions and they make it easier to integrate contributions coming from people who only make this single contribution.
Open Source does not reduce the possibilities of failure, but rather the costs that failure causes. This corresponds to the pattern "Publish first, then filter". (See Wikipedia/Shirky)._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
Here Comes Everybody: The Power of Organizing Without Organizations New York 2009