Peer Production/commons-based peer production/Zittrain: To see how cheap processors, networks, and sensors create an entirely new form of the problem, we must look to the excitement surrounding the participatory technologies suggested by one meaning of “Web 2.0.” In academic circles, this meaning of Web 2.0 has become known as “peer production.” The aggregation of small contributions of individual work can make once-difficult tasks seem easy. For example, Yochai Benkler has approvingly described the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA’s) use of public volunteers, or “clickworkers.” (1)
Wikipedia. Computer scientist Luis von Ahn, after noting that over nine billion person-hours were spent playing Windows Solitaire in a single year, devised the online “ESP” game, in which two remote players are randomly paired and shown an image. They are asked to guess the word that best describes the image, and when they each guess the same word they win points. (2) Their actions also provide input to a database that reliably labels images for use in graphical search engines—improving the ability of image search engines to identify images. In real time, then, people are building and participating in a collective, organic, worldwide computer to perform tasks that real computers cannot easily do themselves. (3)
1. YOCHAI BENKLER, THE WEALTH OF NETWORKS 69 (2006).
2. Luis von Ahn, Presentation for Google TechTalk on Human Computation (Oct. 26, 2006), available at http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-8246463980976635143.
3. Cf BENKLER, supra note 26, at 81 (discussing the potential for digital proofreading)._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
The Future of the Internet--And How to Stop It New Haven 2009