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II 256ff
Equilibrium/Evolution/Eldredge/Gould: I am one of the evolutionists who believe in leaps in evolution. Together with Niles Eldredge:
Thesis: Theory of uninterrupted equilibrium: Leaps do not have to express gaps in fossil finds, but can confirm the predictions of the theory of evolution.(1)
II 258
These tendencies cannot be attributed to the gradual change within the sexes, but must arise from the different success of certain types of species. More stairs than sloping plane.
Transitional forms are generally absent at the level of species, but are abundant between larger groups.
IV 186
Equilibrium/theory of the interrupted equilibrium (selective equilibrium)/Gould: Thesis: unorthodox theory to explain the absence of expected patterns and laws. (together with Niles Eldredge). Thesis: in normal times there is no continuous adaptive perfection within the groups of descent. Rather, the species are formed quite quickly on a scale of geological periods (i. e. in a few thousand years) and then remain extremely stable in the following millions of years.
IV 187
Evolution/Gould: therefore, it must have an effect on the species level and not in Darwin's sense as a fight of the individuals: > punctuated equilibrium.
Mass extinction: what was accumulated in normal times collapses, is dismantled and rearranged or newly started and spread. If the theory of the interrupted equilibrium is correct, then MAs are even more catastrophic than previously assumed! If they can destroy up to 90% of all species, then by an unfortunate coincidence we lose some groups forever, while others in another world are better equipped.


1. N. Eldredge, S. J. Gould: Punctuated equilibria: an alternative to phyletic gradualism. In: T. Schopf (Ed), Models in Paleobiology, 82-115, San Francisco, (1972).


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Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.
The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

Gould I
Stephen Jay Gould
The Panda’s Thumb. More Reflections in Natural History, New York 1980
German Edition:
Der Daumen des Panda Frankfurt 2009

Gould II
Stephen Jay Gould
Hen’s Teeth and Horse’s Toes. Further Reflections in Natural History, New York 1983
German Edition:
Wie das Zebra zu seinen Streifen kommt Frankfurt 1991

Gould III
Stephen Jay Gould
Full House. The Spread of Excellence from Plato to Darwin, New York 1996
German Edition:
Illusion Fortschritt Frankfurt 2004

Gould IV
Stephen Jay Gould
The Flamingo’s Smile. Reflections in Natural History, New York 1985
German Edition:
Das Lächeln des Flamingos Basel 1989


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